Liderazgo basado en principios: la brujula moral

Hace un tiempo me tope con un articulo de Stephen Covey. hablaba sobre el liderazgo, pero más que hablar sobre el, lo hacía en referencia a los soportes del contenido de ese liderazgo. El "que" hace que ese liderazgo sea usado en una u otra forma, en una dirección o en otra totalmente opuesta.

Un tipo de "vector" que nos indicara como ejercer ese liderazgo... y que fuera más que los valores que cada uno, particularmente, puede hacer suyos.

Este articulo del que hablo se llamaba "la brujula moral", y he considerado necesario reproducirlo en este post.

"Para ejercer una labor de dirección en medio de la turbulencia de los tiempos cambiantes, el valor que pueda tener un mapa es limitado. Lo que se necesita es una brújula moral.

Estuve recientemente en Nueva York y fui testigo de un asalto ejecutado con gran habilidad por una pandilla callejera. Estoy seguro de que sus miembros tenían mapas de las calles y compartían ciertos valores. Una de sus máximas podría ser: "No hacer de soplón ni delatarnos; ser fieles entre nosotros". Pero este valor, en la forma en que esta pandilla lo interpreta y practica, no constituye un "verdadero norte", pues no cumple con el principio de respeto a las personas y a la propiedad.

Esa pandilla no tenía una brújula moral interior. Los principios son como una brújula. Esta tiene un verdadero norte, que es objetivo y externo, que refleja las leyes o principios naturales, en oposición a los valores subjetivos e internos. Puesto que la brújula representa las verdades de la vida, debemos desarrollar nuestro sistema de valores con profundo respeto por los principios del "verdadero norte".

Como dijo Cecil B. De Mille: "Nos es imposible quebrantar la ley. Sólo podemos quebrantarnos nosotros mismos al ir en contra de la ley".

Los principios constituyen guías probadas y perdurables de la conducta del hombre. Algunos de ellos regulan la eficacia humana. Las seis religiones más importantes del mundo enseñan el mismo núcleo de creencias básicas: principios tales como "se recoge lo que se siembra" y "Los hechos son más importantes que las palabras". He visto que existe un consenso global acerca de cuáles son los principios del "verdadero norte". No son difíciles de identificar. Son objetivos, básicos e indiscutibles: "No podemos gozar de confianza si no hemos sido dignos de confianza" y "No podemos enajenarnos de un problema en el que hemos caído por culpa de nuestro propio comportamiento".

Cuando se reúnen suficientes personas para discutir cuáles deberían ser los principios que guíen a una compañía no hay mayores discrepancias. He descubierto que existe una creencia universal en la justicia, la bondad, la dignidad, la caridad, la integridad, la honestidad, la calidad, el servicio y la paciencia.

Pensemos en el absurdo que significaría intentar dirigir u negocio basándose en los principios opuestos. Dudo que haya alguien que considere seriamente que la injusticia, la mentira, la bajeza, la inutilidad, la mediocridad o la degradación pueden ser un fundamento sólido de la felicidad y el éxito perdurables.

Podemos discutir cómo estos principios se definen, interpretan y aplican en situaciones reales, pero en general estamos de acuerdo en cuanto a sus virtudes intrínsecas. Podemos no vivir en completa armonía con ellos, pero creemos en ellos. Y queremos ser dirigidos por ellos. Queremos ser evaluados según "leyes" que, en la dimensión económica y social, sean tan reales, permanentes e indiscutibles como lo es, por ejemplo, la ley de gravedad en la dimensión física.

La realidad y veracidad de estos principios queda en evidencia en cualquier estudio histórico serio, sea éste de una nación o de una empresa. Afloran una y otra vez, y según el grado en que los integrantes de una sociedad vivan en armonía con ellos, alcanzarán la supervivencia y la estabilidad o, por el contrario, caerán en la desintegración y la destrucción.

En cierta ocasión, en el transcurso de un reportaje, se me preguntó si Hitler se basaba en principios. "No –contesté- pero se regía por valores. Uno de sus valores rectores era unificar Alemania. Pero violó los principios de la brújula y sufrió las naturales consecuencias, que fueron trascendentales: el descalabro de todo el mundo durante largos años."

Cuando nos encontramos ante leyes naturales, evidentes, podemos escoger entre actuar en armonía con ellas o desafiarlas obrando de alguna otra forma. De la misma manera en que estas leyes son inmutables también lo son las consecuencias.

En mis seminarios, preguntó a los presentes: "Cuando reflexionan sobre sus valores personales, ¿Cómo lo hacen?" Normalmente las respuestas se centran en lo que cada uno desea. Y entonces, les pregunto: "Cuando reflexionan sobre los principios, ¿cómo lo hacen?" En este caso, se orientan más hacia la ley objetiva, a escuchar la voz de la conciencia, a prestar oído a las verdades.

Los principios no son valores. Los nazis, al igual que la pandilla callejera que antes he mencionado, compartían valores, pero éstos violaban los principios. Los valores son mapas. Los principios son territorios. Y los mapas no son los territorios; sólo son intentos subjetivos de describirlos o representarlos.

Cuanto más ajustadamente estén alineados nuestros mapas con los principios correctos –con la realidad del territorio, con las cosas tal como son- más precisos y útiles serán. Los mapas correctos influirán sobre nuestra eficacia mucho más que nuestros esfuerzos por cambiar actitudes y comportamientos. De todas formas, cuando el territorio está en perpetuo cambio, cualquier mapa queda, pronto, obsoleto.

Una Brújula Para Esta Epoca

Lo que se necesita en el mundo de hoy es una brújula. Este aparato consiste en una aguja magnética que flota libremente y apunta hacia el norte magnético. Es asimismo, un instrumento de navegación para orientar o verificar el rumbo de los barcos en el mar.

¿Por qué motivo una brújula es mejor que un mapa en el mundo de los negocios de nuestros días? Existen varias razones convincentes para que el poseer una brújula sea de inestimable valor para los líderes de las empresas:

  • La brújula orienta a las personas en las coordenadas correctas e indica un rumbo o dirección, incluso a través de los bosques, los desiertos, los mares y el terreno abierto y deshabitado.
  • A medida que el territorio cambia, el mapa se torna obsoleto; en épocas de cambios rápidos, un mapa puede estar caduco y ser impreciso aun cuando este recién salido de la imprenta.
  • Los mapas imprecisos motivan grandes frustraciones a quien trata de encontrar su camino o explorar un territorio.
  • Muchos ejecutivos son como pioneros que viajan por aguas y desiertos desconocidos, sin disponer de mapas que los describan con precisión.
  • Para llegar con rapidez a cualquier sitio necesitamos procesos modernizados y canales de producción y distribución expeditos (autopistas), y para encontrar o construir autopistas en el desierto, necesitamos una brújula.
  • El mapa ilustra la descripción del terreno, pero la brújula nos brinda más perspectiva y dirección.
  • Un mapa preciso es una buena herramienta gerencial, pero una brújula es una herramienta de liderazgo y poder.

Quien ha estado usando mapas durante muchos años para encontrar su camino y mantener el sentido de la perspectiva y de la dirección puede comprobar que sus mapas suelen ser inútiles en el laberinto desértico que es la actividad gerencial en la actualidad. Le recomiendo a usted que cambie su mapa por una brújula y se capacite y capacite a sus empleados en la navegación orientándose con una brújula calibrada según el marco de principios del verdadero norte y de las leyes naturales.

¿Por qué? Porque con un mapa impreciso usted se perdería incluso en una ciudad. ¿Y qué pasaría si alguien le dijera: "Trabajé más duro"? Usted se perdería con mayor rapidez todavía. Y si luego alguien le dijese: "piense positivamente", usted no se preocuparía por el hecho de que está perdido. El problema no tiene nada que ver con la velocidad en que se mueve dentro de la ciudad ni con su actitud personal. El problema reside en la imprecisión de su mapa. El paradigma o nivel de razonamiento que tiene usted equivale a su mapa de la realidad, su mapa del territorio.

El problema fundamental que está en la base de la mayor parte de las culturas ineficaces es que el mapa que tiene la gente en su mente es la causa de esa situación. Es un mapa incompleto, basado en soluciones instantáneas, en una forma de pensar a corto plazo, orientada sólo hacia los resultados y en una mentalidad de escasez.

La solución consiste en cambiar de la actividad gerencial orientada por mapas (valores) a la orientada por una brújula (principios naturales). Un ambiente político es inevitablemente influido por el estilo de la gente que está a la cabeza; ellos constituyen supuestamente el verdadero norte. Pero este estilo se basa en estados de ánimo cambiantes, en decisiones arbitrarias, en las emociones más crudas y en los vaivenes del ego. En ocasiones al verdadero norte se lo denomina "sistema de información" o "sistema de recompensa", y eso es lo que rige en el comportamiento. Sólo crece lo que ha sido regado. El liderazgo centrado en principios exige que las personas "trabajen en granjas" sobre la base de los principios naturales de la agricultura, y que sitúen esos principios en el centro de sus vidas, sus relaciones, sus acuerdos, sus procesos gerenciales y sus líneas de acción.

Orientación Estratégica

La orientación "mapa o brújula" constituye una importante cuestión estratégica, como se refleja en esta declaración de Masaharu Matsushita, el presidente de una gigantesca compañía japonesa de productos electrónicos: "Nosotros seremos los ganadores y el Occidente industrializado el perdedor porque las causas de su fracaso están dentro de ustedes mismos; para ustedes, la esencia de la actividad gerencial consiste en sacar las ideas de las cabezas de los jefes y ponerlas en las manos de los trabajadores".

Lo importante de esta afirmación es la razón a la que se atribuye nuestro "fracaso". Somos prisioneros de ciertos esquemas mentales o paradigmas, de la actividad gerencial orientada por mapas y de un viejo modelo de liderazgo en el cual los expertos de la cúpula deciden los objetivos, métodos y medios.

Este viejo modelo de planificación estratégico es obsoleto. Es un mapa de rutas. Convoca a los miembros de la cúpula a poner en práctica su experiencia, pericia, sabiduría y juicio para diseñar planes estratégicos a diez años vista, con el único resultado de que estos planes pierden todo su valor a los dieciocho mesos. En estos días en que el timepo necesario para programar las actividades de mercado ha descendido de cinco años a dieciocho meses, los planes se tornan obsoletos con rapidez.

Peter Drucker ha dicho: "Los planes no tienen valor, pero la planificación es invalorable". Y si nuestra planificación se centra en un fin o visión de conjunto y en un compromiso con un marco de principios, quienes están más cerca de la acción pueden usar esa brújula y su propia pericia y juicio para tomas decisiones y actuar. Efectivamente, cualquier persona puede tener su propia brújula y el poder de fijar objetivos y hacer planes que reflejen la realidad del nuevo mercado.

Los principios no son prácticas. Las prácticas son actividades o acciones específicas que funcionan en una determinada circunstancia pero no necesariamente en otra. Si un administra por medio de prácticas y dirige a través de políticas, su gente no necesita ser experta; no tienen que formular juicios, porque todos los juicios y conocimientos les son suministrados bajo la forma de normas y reglamentos.

Si uno se concentra en los principios, confiere a quienes los comprendan el poder actuar, sin tener que estar conduciéndolos, evaluándolos, corrigiéndolos o controlándolos constantemente. Los principios son de aplicación universal. Y cuando son incorporados como hábitos, dan poder a la gente para crear una amplia variedad de prácticas con las que resolver diferentes situaciones.

Guiar a través de principios, en oposición a hacerlo por medio de prácticas, requiere un diferente tipo de capacitación o quizá más capacitación, pero la recompensa es una mayor pericia, creatividad y responsabilidad, virtudes compartidas a todos los niveles de la organización.

Si un capacita a las personas en las prácticas de servir al cliente, logrará cierto grado de servicio al cliente, pero este servicio se derrumbará en la primera oportunidad en que los clientes presenten un caso o problema especial, porque al hacerlo producirán un cortocircuito en el procedimiento operativo.

Antes de poder actuar en forma consistente según el principio de servir al cliente, las personas deben adoptar una nueva mentalidad. En la mayor parte de los casos requerirán ser capacitadas –con el estudio de supuestos, la representación de roles, los simulacros de problemas y algo de entrenamiento sobre el terreno- para tener la seguridad de que comprenden el principio y cómo debe aplicarse en su labor diaria.

Con La Brújula, Nosotros También Podemos Ganar

"Una brújula en el bolsillo de cada uno" es mejor que "una gallina en cada olla" o "un automóvil en cada garaje". Con una brújula moral podemos ganar incluso contra la más dura de las competencias. Opino que los japoneses subordinan el individuo al grupo hasta tal grado que no perciben las capacidades creativas y plenas de recursos de la gente (un indicio de ellos es que sólo hayan tenido cuatro premios Nobel en contraste con los 186 de los Estados Unidos). El más elevado principio del liderazgo es la interdependencia yo gano/tú ganas, donde uno está en un alto nivel como individuo y como parte de un equipo.

Pero tan pronto como las personas comienzan a darse cuenta de que esta "brújula" será la base para evaluarlo todo, incluso el estilo de liderazgo de la cúpula, tienden a sentirse amenazadas.

En cierta oportunidad el presidente de una importante empresa me pidió que me reuniera con él y su equipo de dirección. Me dijo que todos ellos estaban muy preocupados por preservar su propio estilo gerencial. Agregó que la declaración de la misión de su compañía en realidad no tenía mayor influencia sobre su estilo. Esos ejecutivos pensaban que la misión era para la gente de "afuera", la que estaba sometida a la ley, pero que ellos estaban por encima de esa ley.

La idea de la brújula moral inquieta a quienes creen que están por encima de la ley, y es que la Constitución, basada en principios, es la ley: rige para todos, incluso para el presidente. Asigna a los individuos la responsabilidad de examinar sus propias vidas y determinar si quieren vivir de acuerdo con principios. Todos deben rendir cuentas ante la ley y los principios.

Estoy al corriente de varios ejemplos patéticos de importantes empresas de Estados Unidos que les dijeron a sus consultores: "No podemos seguir haciendo estudios de factibilidad de mercado y estudios estratégicos que sean independientes de nuestra cultura y nuestra gente". Esos ejecutivo habían comprendido las palabras de Michael Porter: "Una estrategia mediocre bien aplicada es preferible a una buena estrategia mediocremente aplicada".

Debemos estudiar las cuestiones que se refieren a la cultura de la gente para mejorar la puesta en práctica de la estrategia y lograr la integración de la corporación. Debemos tener la voluntad de pasar por una reunión constituyente, y si es necesario por una guerra revolucionaria, para poner esas cuestiones sobre el tapete, afrontarlas y lograr un profundo compromiso que redunde en sabias decisiones. Y esto no puede ocurrir sin algo de sangre, sudor y lágrimas.

La implementación exitosa de cualquier estrategia gira, en definitiva, en torno de la integración de la gente con los principios rectores y a su capacidad para aplicarlos a cualquier situación, utilizando su propia brújula moral.

Ejemplo de una de las tablas de "t" trabajado

VALOR

PRINCIPIO

Particular, personal

Universal

Falsos o verdaderos en el marco de la realidad

Más acorde con la realidad

Proviene de modelos mentales

Refuerza marcos conceptuales

Poder de coerción, utilitario

Poder de la realidad, de la razón, de los principios. (poco frecuente)

Produce acciones forzadas, rebeldía.

Produce acciones voluntarios, estimula la iniciativa.

Pasivo

Proactivo

 

Evolutivo en su entendimiento y aplicación.

Las pandillas y Hitler tuvieron valores.

Pero no tuvieron principios.

   
   

 

Stephen Covey

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